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زبان و زبان شناسی - Languages & Linguistics

Mishnaic Hebrew

 Mishnaic Hebrew is any of the Hebrew dialects found in the Talmud, except for direct quotations from the Hebrew Bible. The dialects can be further sub­divided into Mishnaic Hebrew proper (also called Tannaitic Hebrew, Early Rabbinic Hebrew, or Mishnaic Hebrew I), which was a spoken language, and Amoraic Hebrew (also called Late Rabbinic Hebrew or Mishnaic Hebrew II), which was a literary language only.

 The Mishnaic Hebrew language or Early Rabbinic Hebrew language is one direct ancient descendant of Biblical Hebrew as preserved by the Jews after the Babylonian captivity, and definitively recorded by Jewish sages in writing the Mishnah and other contemporary documents. It was not used by the Samaritans, who preserved their own dialect, Samaritan Hebrew.

A transitional form of the language occurs in the other works of Tannaitic literature dating from the century beginning with the completion of the Mishnah. These include the halachic Midrashim (Sifra, Sifre, Mechilta etc.) and the expanded collection of Mishnah­related material known as the Tosefta (אתפסות). The Talmud contains excerpts from these works, as well as further Tannaitic material not attested elsewhere; the generic term for these passages is Baraitot. The dialect of all these works is very similar to Mishnaic Hebrew.

 Historical occurrence

Mishnaic Hebrew is found primarily from the 1st to the 4th centuries of the Christian Era, corresponding to the Roman period after the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem. Also called Tannaitic Hebrew or Early Rabbinic Hebrew, the dialect is represented by the bulk of the Mishnah (הנשמ, published around 200) and

the Tosefta within the Talmud, and by some of the Dead Sea Scrolls, notably the Copper Scroll, and the Bar Kokhba Letters. Dead Sea Scrolls Archaeologist Yigael Yadin mentions that 3 Bar Kokhba documents he and his team found at Nahal Hever are written in Mishnaic Hebrew. But Yadin mentions that it was Bar Kokhba who revived Hebrew language and made Hebrew the official language of the state during Bar Kokhba revolt (132­135 AD). Yigael Yadin also noticed the shift from Aramaic to Hebrew during the time of Bar Kokhba revolt—in his book Bar Kokhba: The Rediscovery of the Legendary Hero of the Last Jewish Revolt Against Imperial Rome, Yadin notes, "It is interesting that the earlier documents are written in Aramaic while the later ones are in Hebrew. Possibly the change was made by a special decree of Bar­ Kokhba who wanted to restore Hebrew as the official language of the state" (page 181). In Book "A Roadmap to the Heavens: An Anthropological Study of Hegemony among Priests, Sages, and Laymen (Judaism and Jewish Life)" by Sigalit Ben­Zion (Page 155), Yadin remarked: "it seems that this change came as a result of the order that was given by Bar Kokhba, who wanted to revive the Hebrew language and make it the official language of the state."

Within a century after the publication of the Mishnah, Mishnaic Hebrew began to fall into disuse as a spoken language. The Babylonian Gemara (ארמג, circa 500), as well as the earlier so­called Jerusalem Talmud published between 350 and 400, generally comment on the Mishnah and Baraitot in Aramaic. Nevertheless, Hebrew survived as a liturgical and literary language in the form of later Amoraic Hebrew, which sometimes occurs in the Gemara text.

 Mishnaic Hebrew developed under the profound influence of spoken Aramaic in all spheres of language, including phonology, morphology, syntax and vocabulary.


Many of the characteristic features of Mishnaic Hebrew pronunciation may well have been found already in the period of Late Biblical Hebrew. A notable characteristic distinguishing it from Biblical Hebrew of the classical period is the spirantization of post­vocalic stops (b, g, d, p, t, k), which it has in common with Aramaic.

 A new characteristic is that final /m/ is often replaced with final /n/ in the Mishna (see Bava Kama 1:4, "ןידעומ"), but only in agreement morphemes. Perhaps the final nasal consonant in these morphemes was not pronounced, and instead the vowel previous to it was nasalized. Alternatively, the agreement morphemes may have changed under the influence of Aramaic.

 Also, some surviving manuscripts of the Mishna confuse guttural consonants, especially (א) (a glottal stop) and 'ayin (ע) (a voiced pharyngeal fricative). That could be a sign that they were pronounced the same in Mishnaic Hebrew.


The grammar of Mishnaic Hebrew displays various changes from Biblical Hebrew, of which some appear already in the Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Some, but not all, are retained in Modern Hebrew.

 For the expression of possession, Mishnaic Hebrew mostly replaces the Biblical Hebrew status constructus with analytic constructions involving לש 'of'.

 Missing in Mishnaic Hebrew is the conversive vav.

 Past is expressed using the same form as in Modern Hebrew. For example (Pirkei Avoth 1:1): "לביק השמ יניסמ הרות". ("Moses received the Torah from Sinai".)

 Continuous past is expressed using the present tense of to be, unlike Biblical but like Modern Hebrew. For example (Pirkei Avoth 1:2): "רמוא היה אוה" ("He often said".)

 Present is expressed using the same form as in Modern Hebrew, i.e. using the participle (ינוניב). For example (Pirkei Avoth 1:2): "דמוע םלועה םירבד השולש לע". ("The world is sustained by three things", lit. "On three things the world stands")

 Future can be expressed using דיתע + infinitive. For example (Pirkei Avoth 3:1): "ןיד ןתיל דיתע התא ימ ינפלו ןובשחו". However, unlike Modern Hebrew, but like contemporary Aramaic, the present active participle can also express the future. It mostly replaces the imperfect (prefixed) form in that function.

 The imperfect (prefixed) form, which is used for the future in modern Hebrew, expresses an imperative (order), volition or similar meanings in Mishnaic Hebrew. For example, (Pirkei Avoth 1:3): ",רמוא היה אוה ברה תא ןישמשמה םידבעכ ויהת לא" ("He would say, don't be like slaves serving the master...", lit. "...you will not be..."). In a sense, one could say that the form pertains to the future in Mishnaic Hebrew as well, but it invariably has a modal (imperative, volitional, etc.) aspect in the main clause.

برچسب‌ها: Ancient languages, Hebrew language, Mishnah Chazal
[ 12 Apr 2015 ] [ 11:46 ] [ سامان دلخواه ]

take up

Meaning: to fill an area of space or a period of time

run away

Meaning: If children or teenagers run away, they leave home without telling their parents or guardians.

knock off

Meaning: to stop work for the day

let out

Meaning: to make a particular sound or noise

take down

Meaning: to remove something that's fixed to a wall, like a picture or a poster 

pass on

Meaning: If you pass something on, you give it to another person after receiving it yourself.

allude to

Meaning: to mention or refer to something or someone in an indirect way

think up

Meaning: to use one's imagination to come up with something like an excuse, a name, a plan, or a story

print out

Meaning: to make a printed copy of a document 

rough up

Meaning: to physically attack someone, usually to intimidate or make them afraid rather than to seriously hurt them

revert to

Meaning: to go back to a previous way of behaving, or an old way of doing things

get off

Meaning: to leave a means of transport such as a bus or a train

hang around

Meaning: to spend time somewhere without doing anything useful

urge on

Meaning: If you urge somebody on, you encourage them to continue trying to do something.

make up

Meaning: If you make up with someone, you become friends again after having an argument or a disagreement with them.

hang on

Meaning: If someone tells you to hang on, they want you to wait for a moment.

hook up

Meaning: If you hook up things like computers and their peripherals, or the components of a home theatre, you connect them with cables.

knock off

Meaning: to steal something

see off

Meaning: If you see somebody off, you go to the place from where they're beginning a journey, like an airport or a railway station, and wish them well as they leave.

knock down

Meaning: If something like a building or a wall is knocked down, it is destroyed on purpose.

let out

Meaning: to allow somebody or something to leave a place

pull up

Meaning: If a vehicle such as a car or a taxi pulls up, it stops.

speak up

Meaning: to speak louder

hold on

Meaning: to wait for a short time

eat up

Meaning: to eat all or most of something

jack up

Meaning: to increase the price or the cost of something by a large amount

go together

Meaning: If two things go together, they look good together or they harmonize. 

bring out

Meaning: to release a new product

take back

Meaning: If a store takes back something they've sold, they allow the buyer to return it for a refund, or exchange it.

cheer on

Meaning: to shout loudly to encourage someone, especially someone who's playing sport or competing in a race

fall apart

Meaning: If something falls apart, it breaks into pieces or parts start falling off.

let in

Meaning: If you let someone in, you allow them to enter a room or a building.

note down

Meaning: If you note down something, you write it on a piece of paper or in a notebook.

expose to

Meaning: If you expose someone to something, you introduce them to something they might not otherwise see or experience.

sit through

Meaning: If you sit through something like a long speech or a boring show, you wait until it's over before leaving, even though you're not enjoying it.

join with

Meaning: If you join with someone or something to do something, you do it together.

hand over

Meaning: If you hand something over, you give it to someone who has demanded it.

stop over

Meaning: to stop at a place and stay there for one or two days while on your way to somewhere else



برچسب‌ها: Phrasal Verbs, English Phrasal Verbs
[ 20 Mar 2015 ] [ 10:47 ] [ سامان دلخواه ]

Medieval  Hebrew has many features that distinguish it from older forms of Hebrew. These affect grammar, syntax, sentence structure, and also include a wide variety of new lexical items, which are usually based on older forms.

 In the Golden age of Jewish culture in the Iberian Peninsula important work was done by grammarians in explaining the grammar and vocabulary of Biblical Hebrew; much of this was based on the work of the grammarians of Classical Arabic. Important Hebrew grammarians were Judah ben David Hayyuj and Jonah ibn Janah. A great deal of poetry was written, by poets such as Dunash ben Labrat, Solomon ibn Gabirol, Judah ha­Levi, David Hakohen and the two Ibn Ezras, in a "purified" Hebrew based on the work of these grammarians, and in Arabic quantitative metres (see piyyut). This literary Hebrew was later used by Italian Jewish poets.

 he need to express scientific and philosophical concepts from Classical Greek and Medieval Arabic motivated Medieval Hebrew to borrow terminology and grammar from these other languages, or to coin equivalent terms from existing Hebrew roots, giving rise to a distinct style of philosophical Hebrew. Many have direct parallels in medieval Arabic. The Ibn Tibbon family, and especially Samuel ben Judah ibn Tibbon were personally responsible for the creation of much of this form of Hebrew, which they employed in their translations of scientific materials from the Arabic. At that time, original Jewish philosophical works were usually written in Arabic, but as time went on, this form of Hebrew was used for many original compositions as well.

 Another important influence was Maimonides, who developed a simple style based on Mishnaic Hebrew for use in his law code, the Mishneh Torah. Subsequent rabbinic literature is written in a blend between this style and the Aramaized Rabbinic Hebrew of the Talmud.

 By late 12th and early 13th centuries the cultural center of Mediterranean Jewry was transferred from an Islamic context to Christian lands. The written Hebrew used in Northern Spain, Provence (a term for all of the South of France) and Italy was increasingly influenced by Latin, particularly in philosophical writings, and also by different vernaculars (Provençal, Italian, etc.). In Italy we witness the flourishing of a new

genre, Italian­Hebrew philosophical lexicons. The Italian of these lexicons was generally written in Hebrew characters and are a useful source for the knowledge of Scholastic philosophy among Jews. One of the earliest lexicons was that by Moses b. Shlomo of Salerno, who died in the late 13th. century; it was meant to clarify terms that appear in his commentary on Maimonides' Guide of the Perplexed. Moses of Salerno's glossary was edited by Giuseppe Sermoneta in 1969. There are also glossaries associated with Jewish savants who befriended Pico della Mirandola. Moses of Salerno's commentary on the Guide also contains Italian translations of technical terms, which brings the Guide's Islamic­influenced philosophical system into confrontation with 13th­century Italian scholasticism.

 Hebrew was also used as a language of communication among Jews from different countries, particularly for the purpose of international trade.

 Mention should also be made of the letters preserved in the Cairo geniza, which reflect the Arabic­ influenced Hebrew of medieval Egyptian Jewry. The Arabic terms and syntax that appear in the letters constitute a significant source for the documentation of spoken medieval Arabic, since Jews in Islamic lands tended to use colloquial Arabic in writing rather than classical Arabic, which is the Arabic that appears in Arabic medieval sources.


برچسب‌ها: Hebrew language, Medieval Jewish history, Medieval languages
[ 4 Mar 2015 ] [ 14:25 ] [ سامان دلخواه ]

برای شناخت معنی شناسی باید ابتدا بدانیم مطالعه علمی چیست ؟
زبان شناسان از هر منظری که به زبان بنگرند در این نکته متفق القول اند که مطالعه علمی در این دانش توصیف پدیده های زبانی در چار چوب یک نظام بدون هر پیش انگاری است . این توصیف چنان باید باشد ه بتوان صحت و سقم آن را محک زد.
شاخه های معنی شناسی:
1- معنی شناسی فلسفی : بخشی از مطالعه فلسفی زبان را تشکیل میدهد . این گونه معنی شناسی سابقه طولانی دارد و برحسب منابع موجود به قرن 4 ه.ق و آرای افلاطون در رساله های کراتیلوس و لاخس باز میگردد.

2- معنی شناسی منطقی : بخشی از منطق ریاضی است و بر حسب دیدگاه های بولزانو- مزگه – تاسکی – گودل – زبان را ابزاری برای صحبت در باره جهاز خارج از زبان در نظر میگیرد و سعی بر ان است با توجه به موقعیت جهان خارج صحت و سقم جملات زبان تعیین شود.( رهیافتی اجاعی )

3- معنی شناسی زبانی : این د انش زبان شناسی نخستین بار از سوی (برال) معرفی شد . در معنی شناسی زبانی توجه معطوف بر خود زبان است و با مطالعه معنی به دنبال کشف چگونگی عملکرد ذهن انسان در درک معنی از طریق زبان است و در اصل باز نودهای ذهن آدمی را باز می کارد . این شیوه را رهیافتی باز نمودی مینامند. کدام معنی ؟ باید تکلیف خواننده در این که در معنی شناسی به کدام معنی یا معانی توجه بشود روشن باشد فرض کنید شخصی که زبان فارسی را به طور کامل بلد نیست از ما بپرسد صندلی چیست؟ و ما هم زبانی جز زبان فارسی بلد نیستیم در این شرایط دو امکان برای توضیح معنی صندلی پیش رو خواهیم داشت.1- استفاده از زبان 2- استفاده از جهان خارج از زبان ما میتوانیم با استفاده از واژه های دیگری از زبان فارسی معنی صندلی را توضیح د هیم . همین کار در فرهنگی لغت یک زبانی نیز انجام میشود. یعنی به کمک نشانه های دیگر سعی میکنند تا معنی نشانه ای را توضیح دهند ولی ما میتوانیم از جهان خارج از زبان نیز استفاده کنیم . مثلا"تصویر یک صندلی را بکشیم و به این شخص نشان دهیم ، یا صندلی را از نزدیک معرفی کنیم ، یا با دست در فضا شکل صندلی را ترسیم کنیم و ادای این را در آوریمکه مثلا روی صندلی می نشینیم. ولی همیشه مسئله به این سادگی نیست . مثلا" اگر کسی بپرسد اژدها چیست؟ امکان اشاره به چیزی که در جهان خارج برای ما وجود نخواهد داشت البته میتوانیم برایش مار بزرگی نقاشی کنیم که از دهانش آتش در می آید و بال هم دارد. ولی اگر بپرسد : وجدان چیست؟ در چنین شرایطی مجبوریم فقط از زبان استفاده کنیم زیرا نه تصویری از وجدان نمی توان کشید و نه به چیزی در جهان خارج اشاره کرد.

معانی معنی شناسی:

1- معنی درون زبانی

2- معنی برون زبانی چند نوع دیگر معنی ها و معنی که به کمک علامت نشان میدهیم:

1- چراغ قرمز به معنی ایست 2- حلقه در انگشت به معنی ازدواج کرده 3- دود به معنی آتش 4- عطسه به معنی صبر 5- چه قدر تشنه ام به معنی یک لیوان آب میخواهم این معنی ها تمامی ندارد و هر چیزی ، هر واژه ای و هر جمله ای معانی مختلفی دارد.

ما چگونه میتوانیم با هم ارتباط ایجاد کنیم ؟ موقعیت ها ، سنت ها ، روابط ، شرایط و آداب و رسوم و حتی خاطرات معانی را تغییر می دهد.

یک گل سرخ در گل فروشی همان گل سرخ است اما اگر به کسی تقدیم شودکه فقط یک گل سرخ نمیباشد.

در اینجا کدام معنی ( معنی شناسی ) مطرح میگردد؟ آنچه در محدوده دانش معنی شناسی مورد مطالعه قرار میگیرد صرفا معنی درون زبانی است و زبان نیز در این محدوده همانا زبان خودکار است یعنی زبانی که به صورت روزمره برای ایجاد ارتباط همگانی به کار میرود پس: درمعنی شناسی به آن معانی ای توجه میگردد که بتوان از درون زبان دریافت و نیازی به داشتن اطلاعاتی خارج از زبان نباشد. اگر از متخصص آوا شناسی بپرسیم که کدام واحد یا واحدهای زبان را مورد نظر دارد پس جواب میدهد: آوا اگر از متخصص صرف در مورد همین واحدها پرس و جو کنیم پاسخ میدهد:تکواژ و واژه . متخصص واج شناسی با گفتن واج و متخصص نحو با گفتن جمله تکلیف کار را معلوم میکند. ولی متخصص معنی شناسی با کدام واحد ها سر و کار دارد؟ مسلما" تکواژ به عنوان کوچکترین واحد معنی دار زبان یکی از واحد های کار اوست و حاصل جمع معنی آنها میتواند معنی واژه یا جمله را روشن کند. مثال : سردرد – کتابخانه – من رفتم با دانستن معنی های تکواژ سر و درد میتوان معنی سردرد را حدس زد.

پس معنی شناسی به واحد های بزرگتر از تکواژ یعنی واژه نیازمند است تا بتواند معنی گاوصندوق – چشم زخم – نمک گیر در این مثال ها معنی تکواژ ما را به معنی واژه نمیرساند عامل دیگری که در معنی دخالت دارد : تکیه کرم با تکیه بر هجای دوم ---- به معنای بخشش کرم با تکیه بر هجای اول ---- به معنای کر هستم با تغییر جایگاه تکیه معنی تکواژ یا واژه تغییر میکند

مثال : مردی – سردست – جا افتاده

تغییرجایگاه تکیه در جمله هم همین نقش را ایفا میکند:

کامبیز – میخواست – شیرینی – بخره

1- کسی غیر از کامبیز نمی خواست شیرینی بخرد.

2- کامبیز نمیخواست چیزی دیگر غیر از شیرینی بخرد.

3- کامبیز کار دیگری نمیخواست انجام دهد مگر خریدن شیرینی.

4- تکیه بر ( می ) می خواست ----- کامبیز آخر شیرینی نخرید.

نقش آهنگ نیز در استنباط معانی مختلف کمتر از نقش تکیه نیست. عوامل دیگر در تغییر معنی و استنباط معنی:

1- ریتم بخشیدن به جمله 2- سرعت در گفتار 3- شدت صدا عوامل غیر زبانی: چشمک زدن ، خندیدن ، کج نگاه داشتن سر ، بالا انداختن ابرو

 واحد های مطالعه معنی:

1- واحد های زیر زنجیری (تکیه - آهنگ – صدا )

2- واحدهای پیرا زبانی (شدت صدا – سرعت در گفتار)

3- واحدهای برون زبانی (حرکات بدن)

پس میتوان گفت: تحلیل معنی در سطح واژه و تحلیل معنی در سطح جمله را هدف اصلی معنی شناسی زبانی در نظر گرفت. معنی شناسی و نشانه شناسی معنی شناسی را مطالعه انتقال معنی از طریق زبان می دانیم اما در این میان دانش عامی وجود دارد که معنی شناسی تنها بخشی از آن را تشکیل میدهد که نشانه شناسی است . نشانه شناسی کلا دانش درک معنی است و مسلما" معنی زبان شناسی بخش کوچکی از آن است.

طبقه بندی نشانه شناسی از دیدگاه پیرس

1- شمایل : نشانه ای که بین صورت و معنی اش نوعی شباهت صوری وجود دارد که نشانه تصویری هم نام دارد. مثلا" نقاشی یک صورت که به صاحب آن صورت دلالت دارد .

2- نمایه : نشانه ای که میان صورت و معنی اش نوعی رابطه علی وجود دارد که نشانه طبیعی هم نام دارد . مانند : دود که نشانه آتش است یا حرارت بالا که نشانه تب است.

3- نماد : نشانه ای که میان صورت و معنی اش رابططه قراردادی وجود دارد. مانند : چراغ قرمز به معنی ایست . نشانه های زبانی به دلیل ماهیت قراردادی شان بخشی از نمادها را تشکیل می دهد. جایگاه معنی شناسی در زبان شناسی الگوهایی برای زبان شناسی معرفی میگردد که الگویی را برای دستور در نظر میگیرند که از سه بخش واج ، نحو و معنی شناسی تشکیل میشود. این نگرش مبتنی بر این اعتقادات که انسان ها از آواها برای انتقال معنی استفاده می کنند پس زبان با آوا آغاز و با معنی ختم می شود.

نشانه های زبانی : در بیان واژه ها هر کداممان به هنگام تلفظ از نظر فیزیکی به نحو قابل ملاحظه ای با آواهای تولیدی دیگران متفاوت خواهد بود. در کلمه رود ، تلفظ یکسان به نظر میرسد اما کلمه رود به نظر زود - دود - روز - رد – راد – روده و ..... تبدیل شود میتوان گفت : (صوت ، پدیده ای فیزیکی است درحالی که دال یا تصور صوتی پدیده ای ذهنی است و به نظام زبان تعلق دارد.)

دال صوت نیست و مدلول چیزی نیست که در جهان خارج از زبان وجود داشته باشد و هر دوپدیده های ذهنی هستند و به نظام زبان تعلق دارند (طرح سوسور)

انواع زبان:

1- زبان فردی: زبانی که فردی است زیرا بر حسب انتخاب های خودمان از جهان خارج شکل گرفته نام برادر من هرفر است این کلمه (هرفر) برای من و شما معنای متفاوتی دارد.

2- زبان اجتماعی: زبانی که برای ایجاد ارتباط به کار می رود مانند من می پرسم که: جا کلیدی ام را گم کرده ام آیا آن را ندیده اید؟ این پرسش برای همه معلوم است.

برچسب‌ها: زبانشناسی, معنی شناسی, نشانه شناسی
[ 26 Feb 2015 ] [ 13:34 ] [ سامان دلخواه ]







Meaning: very good, excellent, outstanding



Meaning: a harmful computer program that can spread from one machine to another



Meaning: high-class, stylish



Meaning: a strong feeling of love or infatuation for someone



Meaning: a socially awkward person



Meaning: poorly made, of low quality



Meaning: to be charged with a criminal offence



Meaning: trendy, stylish, fashionable among young people




warts and all

Meaning: If you show something warts and all, you show it exactly as it is without trying to hide any of its faults or weaknesses.


up a gum tree

Meaning: If you're up a gum tree, you're in trouble or have a serious problem. 


Mind your own business!

Meaning: If you say "Mind your own business!" to someone, you're telling them to stop interfering in things that don't concern them, or to stop asking personal 


a red-letter day

Meaning: A red-letter day is a day that is very important for some reason.


get away from it all

Meaning: If you get away from it all, you go somewhere to escape from your usual daily routine.


tighten your belt

Meaning: If you tighten your belt, you try to spend less money.


a pat on the back

Meaning: You've given someone a pat on the back if you've told them they've done something well, or done a good job.


chickens come home to roost

Meaning: If chickens are coming home to roost, someone is suffering the unpleasant consequences of their bad actions in the past.


music to your ears

Meaning: If something is music to your ears, it's just what you want to hear. 


carte blanche

Meaning: If you give someone carte blanche, you give them freedom to do whatever they want in a situation.


made of money

Meaning: If you are made of money, you have lots of money.


the jury is still out

Meaning: We can say the jury is still out when a decision still hasn't been made about something.


enough is enough

Meaning: You can say "enough is enough" if you think someone shouldn't do something because they've done it too many times already, or because they've been doing it for too long.


rock the boat

Meaning: If you rock the boat, you do or say something that will upset people by changing a situation that they don't want changed.


above board

Meaning: If something is above board, it's been done in a legal and honest way.


I owe you one!

Meaning: You can say "I owe you one!" when someone has done something for you and you'd be happy to return the favour one day.


draw a blank

Meaning: If you draw a blank, you get no response when you ask for something, or get no results when you search for something.



برچسب‌ها: Idioms, English Idioms, Slangs, English Slangs
[ 8 Feb 2015 ] [ 10:35 ] [ سامان دلخواه ]
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