" LangLing "
زبان و زبان شناسی - Languages & Linguistics

long for

Meaning: to want something you miss very much


pass up

Meaning: If you pass up an opportunity or an invitation, you choose not to take the opportunity or accept the invitation.


wean off

Meaning: to gradually break a bad habit by doing it less and less


open up

Meaning: If you open up a new business, you set it up and start trading.


come off

Meaning: If something comes off, it becomes separated from the thing it's usually attached to.


bring up

Meaning: to raise a new topic for discussion, or to mention a particular subject or issue in a conversation


put on

Meaning: to start wearing an item of clothing, a pair of shoes, a piece of jewellery, a pair of glasses, etc.


lay off

Meaning: If you lay someone off, you stop employing them and tell them they no longer have a job


tell off

Meaning: to strongly criticize someone for doing something wrong


pick out

Meaning: If you pick out something, you choose or select it.


associate with

Meaning: If you associate with someone, you regularly spend time with them.


head off

Meaning: to stop something bad from happening


settle down

Meaning: to start living a conventional life with a steady job and a stable partner, especially after getting married 


kick against

Meaning: to show anger or opposition to something, especially if you're powerless to change it 


hear of

Meaning: If you've heard of someone, you know who they are and what they do.


talk over

Meaning: to discuss a situation with someone, usually before making a decision


look up

Meaning: If a situation is looking up, it seems to be getting better.


go for

Meaning: to try to get something or achieve something 


برچسب‌ها: Phrasal Verbs, English Phrasal Verbs
[ 26 Jan 2015 ] [ 16:55 ] [ سامان دلخواه ]

tighten your belt

Meaning: If you tighten your belt, you try to spend less money.


face to face

Meaning: If people meet face to face, they meet in person in the real world.


jump on the bandwagon

Meaning: If someone jumps on the bandwagon, they join a movement or follow a fashion that has recently become popular.


go over your head

Meaning: If someone goes over your head, they go to someone with more authority than you in order to get something that you would normally grant, possibly because they think you won't give it to them.


upset the applecart

Meaning: If you upset the applecart, you do something that causes trouble or upsets someone's plans.


just the ticket

Meaning: You can say something is just the ticket if it's the perfect thing or if it's exactly what's needed.


another string to your bow

Meaning: If you have another string to your bow, you have another way of making a living.


the tip of the iceberg

Meaning: You can say something is the tip of the iceberg when it's just a small part of something much bigger.


cover your tracks

Meaning: If you cover your tracks, you make sure no-one can find evidence of what you've done.


have a heart-to-heart

Meaning: If you have a heart-to-heart with someone, you have an honest talk and share your feelings with each other.


vote with your feet

Meaning: If you vote with your feet, you show your opinion of something by acting in a certain way, such as by buying something if you like it, or by not buying it if you don't like it.


vim and vigor

Meaning: If you have vim and vigor, you have lots of energy and enthusiasm for life.


You are what you eat.

Meaning: You can say "you are what you eat" when you want to point out the connection between food and health.


make a killing

Meaning: If you make a killing, you make a lot of money from a sale or a deal of some sort. 


up to your neck | up to your eyeballs

Meaning: If you're up to your neck in something, or up to your eyeballs in something, you've got too much of it and it's become a problem.


dirt cheap

Meaning: You can say something is dirt cheap if it costs very little money.


rub it in

Meaning: If you rub it in, you keep talking about something that embarrasses or upsets someone.


a fair-weather friend

Meaning: A fair-weather friend is a person who will only be your friend when things are going well for you.


esprit de corps

Meaning: A feeling of pride and comradeship shared by members of a group such as a military unit or a sports team


make hay while the sun shines

Meaning: If you make hay while the sun shines, you make good use of the chance to do something while it lasts.


a night owl

Meaning: You're a night owl if you like to stay up and do things late at night.


feather your own nest

Meaning: If you feather your own nest, you use your position or your job illegally for personal gain.


lose face

Meaning: If you lose face, your status falls and you aren't respected as much as you were.


the upper crust

Meaning: If you are one of the upper crust, you are a member of society's highest class.


vanish into thin air

Meaning: If something vanishes into thin air, it disappears completely.


برچسب‌ها: Idioms, English Idioms
[ 25 Jan 2015 ] [ 19:24 ] [ سامان دلخواه ]

poof | poofter

Meaning: an offensive, derogatory word meaning a gay man


hooky | hookey

Meaning: (in phrase play hooky) to stay away from school or work without permission



Meaning: to hit or punch someone



Meaning: a greeting, like "Hey!"



Meaning: poorly made, of low quality


Mickey Finn | Mickey | mickey

Meaning: a drink to which a drug has been added to make the drinker sleepy or unconscious



Meaning: to run away


knockoff | knock-off

Meaning: a cheap copy of a brand-name product


dis | diss

Meaning: to show disrespect to someone by saying or doing something insulting


axe | ax

Meaning 1: a musical instrument, esp. a jazz musician's guitar, trumpet or saxophone

Meaning 2: to dismiss someone from a job (v.) | dismissal from a job (n.)



Meaning: a silly, stupid person



Meaning 1: very tired, exhausted

Meaning 2: severely damaged



Meaning: a pretty, but empty-headed, young lady



Meaning: a dull, lazy, unreliable person



Meaning: a stupid person



Meaning: a fault or defect, esp. in computer software


suck | it sucks

Meaning: be very bad



Meaning: a studious person with few social skills


برچسب‌ها: Slang, English Slang
[ 22 Jan 2015 ] [ 10:14 ] [ سامان دلخواه ]

الگوهای یادگیری زبان

زبان فطریست یا اکتسابی

جدل فطری یا اکتسابی زبان به جدل تاریخی بین تجربه گرایان و عقل گرایان در فلسفه بر می گردد که در روانشناسی بنام رفتار گرایان و فطرت گرایان شناخته می شود.

رفتارگرایان در روانشناسی وارث تجربه گرایان در فلسفه هستند برای رفتار گرایان زبان نیز نوعی رفتار است و مشمول تمامی قوانین شناخته شده برای سایر رفتارهای انسانی مثل تقویت ، پاداش و خاموش و شرطی سازی و ... است .

سرآمد نظریه پردازان رفتار گرایان اسکینر است ، اسکینر در سال 1957 کتابی را بنام رفتار کلامی که مانیفیست رفتاریهای زبان شناس است منتشر کرد.

فطرت گرایان دلایل فوق را رد نمی کنند. منتها معتقدند نظام زبانی پیچیده تر از آن است که کودک بتواند تحت قوانین پاداش ، تقویت و بسادگی در طول زمان اندکی زبان را بیاموزد بنابراین یک دانش ذاتی زبان بایستی در کار باشد.

سرآمد فطرت گرایان در خوره زبانشناسی نوام چامسکی است همان که خواص از او بعنوان یک زبانشناس برجسته و عوام از اوبعنوان یک سیاستمدار آمریکایی یاد می کنند اما او خود را یک فیلسوف عقلگرای دکارتی می نامد. چامسکی در سال 1959 یعنی دو سال پس از کتاب اسکینر کتاب کوچکی تحت عنوان ساختهای نحوی منتشر کرد و با همان کتاب کوچک طوفانی بپا کرد که نه تنها بساط طرز تفکر رفتار گرایان را در هم پیچید بلکه جدلی دوباره بین عقلگرایان و تجربه گرایان بر انگیخت.

چامسکی به ویژگیهایی از زبان می پردازد که رفتار گرایی قادر به تبیین آنها نیستند  .

غالباً پدیده هایی را فطری می دانند که دارای ویژگیهای خاصی باشند . از جمله اینکه 1- در تمامی افراد طبیعی وجود دارد2- اکتساب آن به صورت یک شکل و خودکار است .3- تمامی افراد طبیعی در سنین خاصی مراحل مشابهی را پشت سر می گذارند بدون آنکه نیاز به دستورالعملهای خاصی برای اکتساب آن داشته باشند 4- احتمالاً دوره سرنوشت ساز برای کسب موفقیت آمیز آن وجود داشته باشد.5- احتمالاً قابلیت توارث داشته باشد.

و اما پیاژه :

پیاژه در خصوص یادگیری زبان منتقد رفتارگرایان و فطریون یا ذاتی بودن دانش زبانی است . او هوش ناشی از ادراک های حسی ابتدایی در دوره رشد شناختی حسی حرکتی را برای تشکیل و استواری هسته زبان کافی می داند.

پیاژه به طور مستقیم به زبان آموزی توجه نمی کند و زبان را بعنوان یک پدیده ثانوی در روند عمومی رشد تلقی می کند او هر گونه ویژگی ذاتی یا ارثی را برای فراگیری و رشد زبان انکار می کند وی می گوید کودک تنها پس از آنکه به سطح مناسبی از رشد شناختی رسید بر برخی جنبه های خاص زبان مهارت می یابد و سپس با سیر پیشرفت و هماهنگی میان رشد شناختی ، رشد زبانی همچنان ادامه می یابد تا کودک بر همه جنبه های زبان مهارت کافی داشته باشد.

و اما ویگوتسگی

ویگوتسکی معتقد است کارکردهای ذهنی به دو دسته کارکردهای نخستین ذهنی و عالی ذهنی تقسیم می شود.

کارکردهای  نخستین به توانایی های فطری مثل توجه و ادراک و حس کردن گفته می شود و کارکردهای عالی به تفکر و حل مساله اطلاق می شود و رشد یا تحول جریانی است که کارکردهای نخستین طی آن به کارکردهای عالی بدل می شود صد البته این تغییر عمدتا از راه تاثیر فرهنگ و در زمینه تاریخی اجتماعی پیدا است و رابطه محرک پاسخ رفتارگرایان در بینش او به رابطه محرک علامت پاسخ بدل می شود و زبان بعنوان یک سیستم علامتی در راه انتقال فرهنگ و تاریخ و بعنوان یک ابزار به تسریع و عمق بخشی جریان تحول کمک می کند ویگوتسکی رشد زبان را متاثر از مواجهه عمیق کارکردهای نخستین با فرهنگ و تاریخ اجتماع می داند.

اما تفاوت های مهم پیاژه با ویگوتسکی در خصوص رشد زبان

1- ویگوتسکی عقیده دارد که کودک فعال است اما این تعامل اجتماعی بین کودک و افراد دیگر است که موجب شکل گیری شناخت و فرایندهای شناختی می شود.

اما پیاژه می گوید مهمترین ابزار شناخت خود کودک است کودک یک کاشف فعال است .

2- رشد زبان پایه رشد مهارتهای شناختی است این نظر ویگوتسکی است اما به نظر پیاژه رشد شناختی پایه رشد زبان است  . رشد زبان متاثر از رشد عقلانی و ابزارهای روانشناسی است ..

3-  ویگوتسکی عقیده دارد که گفتارخود محور در کودک موجب برقراری ارتباط با خودش به منظور هدایت و راهنمایی رفتارهای کودک است و بیانگر یک نوع تفکر بیرونی است و مقدمه ای برای گفتار درونی است به نظر ویگوتسکی گفتار خصوصی کودک را در رشد شناختی کمک می کند و بویژه اینکه کودک وقتی با مسئله سختی روبرو می شود از گفتار بیشتر استفاده می کند.

اما پیاژه معتقد است که گفتار خصوصی بیانگر ناتوانی کودک در اخذ دیدگاه دیگران و ناتوانی در درگیر شدن در ارتباط های متقابل است پیاژه می گوید گفتار خصوصی ارتباطی با گفتار اجتماعی ندارد البته تحقیقات جدید بیشتر مورد نظر ویگوتسکی است تا پیاژه.

[ 18 Jan 2015 ] [ 13:1 ] [ سامان دلخواه ]

jot down

Meaning: If you jot something down, you quickly write it down on a pad or piece of paper.


step down

Meaning: to resign from a job or a position


take back

Meaning: If a store takes back something they've sold, they allow the buyer to return it for a refund, or exchange it.


grow up

Meaning: to change from being a child to being an adult, or from being an immature adult to being a mature adult


watch out

Meaning: If you tell someone to watch out, you tell them to be careful or warn them of a danger.


see through

Meaning: If you see something through, you continue with it right to the end.


throw up

Meaning: If someone throws up, they vomit up the contents of their stomach.


look for

Meaning: If you are looking for something, you're trying to find it.


opt out

Meaning: If you opt out of something, you choose not to be involved in it.


go along with

Meaning: to agree with someone or to support something


wait on

Meaning: to serve someone in a restaurant, or to act as a servant for someone and do whatever they ask you to do


hold out on

Meaning: to refuse to give information to someone 


come up against

Meaning: to face a difficult situation or a difficult opponent 


come across

Meaning: to find something or meet someone by chance


shoot up

Meaning: to quickly increase in size, number or level


keep off

Meaning: to avoid something like a certain food or a certain topic in conversation


cheer on

Meaning: to shout loudly to encourage someone, especially someone who's playing sport or competing in a race


try on

Meaning: to put on clothes or shoes before buying them to see if they fit properly and look good


go into

Meaning: to talk about or discuss something in detail


jam into

Meaning: to force too many things or people into a small space


frighten away

Meaning: If you frighten away something or someone, you make them go away by making them feel afraid.


embark on

Meaning: to begin something, usually something that will be challenging and time-consuming


get out

Meaning: to move out of an enclosed space, such as a building or a car


care for

Meaning: If you care for someone, you like them a lot and have a strong affection for them.


believe in

Meaning: If you believe in something, you're sure that it's true or it really exists.


set back

Meaning: to make something happen more slowly, or at a later time, than it would have 


come up

Meaning: to appear, occur, or become available


write out

Meaning: to write information on an official document before giving it to someone


cut down

Meaning: to reduce the amount, number or size of something


notch up

Meaning: to achieve something like a win or a record


move over

Meaning: If you move over, you change position to make room for someone or something, or to block someone or something.


bring forward

Meaning: to change the date or time of an event so that it happens earlier than originally planned 


ask over

Meaning: If you ask some people over, you invite them to your house.


drop by

Meaning: to make a short, casual visit somewhere


bring off

Meaning: to succeed in doing something that's difficult


save up

Meaning: to put something aside for the future




[ 29 Dec 2014 ] [ 10:54 ] [ سامان دلخواه ]
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